TECHNICAL ARCHITECT AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING OCCUPATIONS
The Architectural Technologist occupies today, due to the knowledge acquired in their degree course, a very important role in the construction sector. A generalist who is familiar with and whose techniques are applied to the constructive process, a figure marginally compared with those Civil Engineers whose function in other countries, particularly those within the European Union, the United States and Canada.
Job specification is not only limited to design and the application of construction skills, but also occupies a more predominant role, leaning toward property management developing tasks such as contract surveying, the selection and purchase of products, materials and installations, obtaining authorizations and administrative licenses, research execution and financial planning for marketing, overseeing the carrying out of contracted works and supplying contracts. This is the overall job description of Project Manager.
All this is independent from economic management, which includes traditional aspects of the economic evaluation and measurement of specific work units, a consequence of the work execution direction, which constitutes a characteristic of the profession.
There has been increase in operations, on occasions imposed by the regulations of the Autonomous Communities, with regards to quality control and everything it implicates.
The compromise of and link between the profession and the Health and Safety of workers within Construction is not recent and is well known by all persons and entities related to the industry. Perhaps it is due to this circumstance, as well as the special professional preparation of Quantity Surveyors/ Technical Architects, that the majority of ‘Health and Safety Coordinators’ actively working on building sites in Spain are Foremen and/or Quantity Surveyors.
Within the professional practice there exists a facet which progressively requires more importance, referring to the increase in the industrialization progress which affects construction activity, and it also involves the process of the fabrication of materials and components used within construction, especially production control, foreseeable as gradually substituting the reception control process.
Other functions, such as survey reports and property evaluation, particularly in the mortgage market; the erecting of solar panels and buildings, data preparation for the state of conservation and use of constructed buildings, legal survey reports, amongst others, contribute to an important aspect of the activities. Let us not forget, the direction of operations, another outstanding attribute to the professional practice, with particular emphasis when dealing with large projects which was given a boost after the enactment of the LOE, caused by the specific configuration of which its professional function is stated in article 11.2.c.
In the margin of all this, remains the Project activity, of special importance with regard to rehabilitation works, repairs and consolidation of existing buildings and in the adaptation and decoration of local businesses, which generally imply their own works direction, in the terms described in the current legislation.
Its implementation is deemed considerable by Independent Administrators and in Central Administrators. The field of teaching and the practice’s public function; is a very important attribute in the professional setting. It cannot be forgotten that; in a vast amount of the 8,000 Spanish municipalities; the majority of technical services are performed by Technical Architects. It’s implementation is deemed considerable in the Autonomic and Central administrations.
Due to their training background, Technical Architects possess a great versatility which permits adaptation to changing circumstances within the job market; hence, in general, the unemployment index in this professional field is one of the lowest.
Various administrative and legal procedures regulate the professional activity of the Quantity Surveyor, on of which is the Law of12/1986 which lists the independent and autonomous characteristics and the full responsibility the professional practice / fiscal year requires. Those who hold the former Foreman qualifications are included within the stated Law, recognising the profession of Quantity Surveyor, (DD. 16/07/35 and 265/1971 19th February) regulating operations so that all requirements are met in any construction work, laying down the obligations, rights and responsibilities of all agents.
At the disposal of that stated in Decree 119/1973, of February 1,as well as incorporating Foremen and Quantity Surveyors and corresponding with their Professional Institute the law has also extended the regulations to Interior Decorators, regulated in the RD 902/1977, April 1st.
Finally, a special mention is in order for the recognition of LAW 38/1999, 5th November, DE ORDENACIÓN DE LA EDIFICACIÓN (LOE) under the title of Quantity Surveyor. There is no doubt in the existence of the figure of the double direction(address) in the building (" optional direction(address) ") not only has been kept, but it has received a definitive accolade by the LOE, which consolidates the obligatory mediation of the Quantity Surveyor as “The Director of Execution of the Work ", already contemplated in the Decree of July 16, 1935, which now is legally effective.
The LOE, also extends the obligatory intervention of the Quantity Surveyor as “The Director of Execution of the Work ", to all those works in which the Director of Operations is an Architect, including those designated for industrial uses and to others in which till now our intercession was not forced. In addition, the treatment that the LOE grants to the concurrence of two technical differentiated and independent directions departs from the assumption of full technical justification, determining therefore, the nonexistence of secondary some relation between(among) the optional interveners in the work, each of which has its own(proper) and exclusive - still(yet) evidently related when - functions, capacities and responsibilities.
FUNCTIONS OF THE QUANTITY SURVEYOR AS DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS
An element of Optional Direction (constituted by the Director of Operations, The Director of Execution of Operations and, in certain cases, Health and Safety Coordinator in phase of execution):
- Assumes the technical function of directing the execution of operations, to control the construction and quality control.
- Checks the receipt of construction materials used within operations, managing the accomplishment of tests and controls.
- Directs the execution of work verifying, the materials and the correct execution and disposal of the constructive element and facilities, in agreement with the project and with the instructions of the Director of Operations.
- Records in the Log Book and delivers the precise instructions.
- Abides by the Variation Order and the Final Certificate of Work (of obligatory contribution to the Acknowledgement of Receipt of work).
- Compiles and signs the partial certifications and the final liquidation of the units of work executed.
- Receives the results of controls and checks of service of materials, systems or facilities, which have to be applied, by the entities and laboratories of quality control of the building whom; in addition, have to give technical assistance.
- Collaborates in the compiling of documentation of the work executed (Building Log Book) and presents the results of control realized.
REGULATIONS OF BUILDING WORKS BY THE TECHNICAL ARCHITECT/ QUANTITY SURVEYOR by the L.O.E
- Obligations of The Director of Execution of Operations and component of Optional Direction
- o In all new construction works under group a) that is to say, those which principal use is the residential one in all its forms, administratively, sanitarily, religiously, educationally and culturally. Likewise, when the Director of Work is an Architect, in group b, that is to say, those which principal use is within aeronautics, agriculture; hydraulic energy; mining; telecommunications, maritime, fluvial and air transport; forestry; industrial; naval; reparation and hygiene; and supplement to engineering and development works.
- o In all works projected and directed by an Architect that are carried out on existing buildings corresponding to the uses outlined in the previous paragraph, when they of total control or, in the case of partial interventions, producing a variation from the general external composition, the base of the structural system or whose objective is to change the general use of the building, assuming all elements and characteristics falling under the " architectural configuration " of the building.
- o In listed buildings or those which have some type of environmental or historical protection of an artistic character, projected and directed by the Architect as well as in works of a partial manner that concern elements subject to protection.
- Optional, as an element of Optional Direction, as The Director of Execution in all works projected or directed by Engineering graduates.
- Optional in the project management and direction (of work and of execution) in:
- Works of new construction or interventions in existing buildings of group c, meaning those which uses do not appear related to groups a) and b) - in accordance with the legal regulations for the profession and in agreement with his speciality and specific abilities.
- Construction of a new floor/ level of a short constructive entity and technical simplicity that do not have, of eventual or permanent form, neither residential nor public lineament and which develop just a single floor / level.
- Extension, modification, reform or rehabilitation works in existing buildings that do not have character of total intervention, do not produce an essential variation of its general exterior composition either in volume or within the foundations of the structural system and do not alter the general function of the building.
- Demolition works.
- Decoration works.
- Other works that are not classified as building works, in accordance with their speciality.
- Other interventions or Drafts of Health and Safety studies and plans for any technical assistance before such operations are carried out.
- Coordination, in the project phase and execution of, health and safety within construction works, incorporated by ‘Optional Direction’.
- Draft of temporary projects or technical documents, con firma y responsabilidad propia, are the company’s responsibility, in concrete aspects corresponding with the specialities and specific skills of the profession.
- Or accomplishment, with the company’s own responsibility, of measurements, calculations, valuations, appraisements, expert reports, studies, programme of operations and other analogous works.
THE CAREER OF THE TECHNICAL ARCHITECT/ QUANTITY SURVEYOR
Deals with a University degree included in the area of the Council Directive 89/48/CEE, of the European Union, which protects the recognition of degrees of higher education obtained in member countries referred to as post graduate studies that have an academic duration of three or more educational years.
The Royal decree 927/1992, of July 17, has established the general Study Directive conducive to the obtaining of the official degree of Technical Architect / Quantity Surveyor. The main matters of obligatory incorporation in all Study plans appear in the following:
ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION IN CONFORMITY WITH THE R.D 927/1992
Royal decree 927/1992, of July 17, which established the university degree of the Technical Architect/Quantity Surveyor and the approval of the general study directives required to obtain the degree. (B.O.E. 27-08-1992) And (B.O.E. 18.09.01)
|RELATION OF MAIN MATTERS|
|FIRST YEAR||FULL CREDITS||AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE|
|LUrban development management. General and sector applied legislation.||6||
|Economía Aplicada. Economía general y aplicada al sector. Organización de empresas.||6||
|Building, Quality control, maintenance and rehabilitation of buildings and architectural constructions. . History of the Construction. Tipologías and instructive Systems. Pathology: technologies(skills) etiológicas, of restoration and building rehabilitation. Technologies(skills) of Quality control. Technologies(skills) of Maintenance. Regulations||21||
|Work Equipment, Facilities and First Aid. Means assessment.Characteristics of equipment, facilities and auxiliary methods for the execution of operations. Regulation||6||
|EBuilding Structure. Elasticity and Plasticity. Material Resistance.Mechanics of soil and foundations. Structural Tipologías. Building Structure. Regulation||12||
|Graphical expression applied building and to architectural construction. Descriptive geometry. Architectural drawing. Computer-aided design. Regulation||9||
|Physical foundations of Technical Architecture. General mechanics and fluids. Acoustics. Optics. Thermodynamic. Electricity. Electromagnetism.||6||
|Mathematical Foundations of the Technical Architecture. Linear algebra. Calculation Geometry. Numerical methods. Statistics||9||
|Facilities. Conditioning Technology. Electrical, mechanical and hydraulic facilities. Other facilities in the building. Control. Regulation.||12||
|Construction Material. TTechnology of materials. Applied chemistry. Tests. Controls. Environmental impact.||15||
|Organization and Control of works. Measurements, budgets and valuations. Technologies(skills) of Analysis, organization programming and control of works. Technologies(skills) of measurement and valuation. Analysis and composition of prices. Methods for the optimization of resources. Regulation||18||
|Security and Prevention. Analysis, prevention and control. Regulation.||6||
|Topography and You Replant. Technologies(skills) for the capture of information, processing and representation. Replant you.||6||
|Projects. Technical office. Methodology, organization and project management. Regulations. Carrying out of project, purpose of degree by integration exercise.||6||
CIVIL ENGINEER DEGREE
Through the Royal decree 1393/2007, the Official Spanish University Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior adapted to the European Space of Top Education, whose main objectives were outlined by the Declaration of Sorbona and Bologna.
A consequence of this reform; is the Civil Engineering degree, which leads to the professional practice of the Technical Architect. Stated below are the most relevant documents from the formation this degree (Civil Engineer), which replaces the previous degree of Technical Architect:
- The BOE of December 29, 2007 publishes the Order of the Department of Education and Science in which the requirements are established for the verification of official university degrees that they enabling the professional practice of the Technical Architect.
- In agreement with the Ministers' Council approving the conditions that will govern the new degree adapted to the EEES
- R.D. 1.393/2007 in which there is established the arrangement(ordination) of the Official Universities training scheme.